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CEFNPrimary School

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Cefn Primary School

Learning For Life


In Cefn Primary School we follow the DfES programme Letters and Sounds to deliver phonics which enables your child to learn to read, write and spell. 


Letters and Sounds is split into six phases and starts at phase one and finishes at phase six. Phase one begins in Nursery and it progresses through each phase until it reaches the end in Year 2.


In Reception we have been following phase two and working our way through the different aspects (as listed below). The activities can be found on pages 46-71 within the DfES Letters and Sounds document. The document can be downloaded from the following website 


Phase two is where children learn the letter sounds that make phonemes (the smallest unit of sound e.g. ‘s’ ‘a’ ‘t’) There are 44 sounds in all however phase two only covers the most common single letter sounds and is usually taught over a period of six weeks. By the end of phase two children should be able to read vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words and spell them out. They also learn some high frequency words (HFW) and ‘tricky words’ which you cannot sound out such as ‘the’ and ‘go’. Children also learn that ‘I’ and ‘a’ are single letter words, not a sound.


Phase 2

Sounds Introduced

HFW introduced

Week 1

s, a, t, p

a, an, as

Week 2

i, n, m, d

is, it, in, at, I

Week 3

g, o, c, k

on, not, and, into

Week 4

ck, e, u, r

get, got, the, to

Week 5

h, b, f, ff, l

no, go, his, him

Week 6

ll, ss

Dad, Mum, up, if, of

Assessment week

No new sounds given

big, but, come, here


What are High Frequency Words (HFWs) and why are they important? 

High frequency words are words that are very common words, words that appear frequently within reading texts for example. Some high frequency words are ‘decodable’ meaning that they can be sounded out. Other HFWs are ‘tricky’ and means that children have to recognise them purely by sight. 


What is Oral Blending and Segmenting? 

Blending involves pulling together individual sounds within words.  Segmenting is breaking words down into individual sounds.  

These skills are essential in order for your child to read and write. It takes a lot of practise to master blending and segmenting both orally and with written words.  When learning to blend and segment a lot of modelling from the adult is required.  For example, when blending you as the adult would clearly say aloud the individual sounds s-a-t.  Then repeat again a little quicker, and again even quicker until the sounds become merged and a word can be heard. With segmenting you do the opposite.


Within phase two children are now expected to not only blend and segment orally but to do this with their writing also.


The pronunciation is also an extremely common error, with many children also adding an -uh sound onto lots of letter sounds. Take a look…we are sure some of the sounds may surprise you!


Websites you may like to try: